Backside Line: Whereas lung most cancers demise charges amongst ladies in a lot of the United States have declined considerably lately, progress amongst ladies in a area protecting central Appalachia and southern elements of the Midwest and in northern elements of the Midwest has lagged.
Journal in Which the Research was Printed: Most cancers Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Affiliation for Most cancers Analysis.
Writer: Katherine Ross, MPH, a graduate scholar within the Division of Epidemiology of the Rollins Faculty of Public Well being at Emory College, Atlanta.
Background: Ross defined that nationally, lung most cancers demise charges have been declining steadily amongst ladies for the reason that mid-2000s. “We wanted to see if there were geographic differences in this decline so that we could identify places in the United States where women might benefit from targeted tobacco control and smoking cessation programs, and other interventions aimed at reducing the burden of lung cancer,” she stated.
How the Research Was Performed and Outcomes: To conduct the examine, Ross and her colleagues used information on the variety of lung most cancers deaths amongst ladies obtained from the Nationwide Most cancers Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and Finish Outcomes Program (SEER) database to calculate age-standardized lung most cancers demise charges for every county within the contiguous United States from 1990 to 1999 and from 2006 to 2015. They then calculated absolutely the change and the relative change within the demise charges between the 2 intervals for every county.
The researchers used a software program software known as ArcGIS to establish clusters of counties with will increase or small decreases in lung most cancers demise charges between the 2 intervals, known as scorching spots.
They discovered that from 1990-1999 to 2006-2015, lung most cancers demise charges amongst ladies rose by 13 % in a scorching spot encompassing 669 counties in 21 states in central Appalachia and southern elements of the Midwest. Throughout the identical interval, in a second scorching spot that encompasses 81 counties in 4 states within the northern Midwest, lung most cancers demise charges amongst ladies rose by 7 %. Within the the rest of the contiguous United States, lung most cancers demise charges amongst ladies fell by 6 %.
The researchers additionally in contrast lung most cancers demise charges amongst ladies in every scorching spot with these amongst ladies within the the rest of america. In 1990, the demise fee for the biggest scorching spot was four % decrease than the demise fee for non-hot spot areas, however in 2015, it was 28 % larger. For the second scorching spot, the demise fee was 18 % decrease than the non-hot spot demise fee in 1990 however equal to the non-hot spot demise fee in 2015.
Writer Remark: “We know that Midwestern and Appalachian states have the highest prevalence of smoking among women and the lowest percent declines in smoking in recent years, so it is perhaps not surprising that we found that women in these areas experienced a disparity in lung cancer death rates,” stated Ross. “This geographic disparity could widen until we particularly goal to cut back tobacco use amongst ladies in these scorching spots.
“There are several effective tobacco control policies available, such as increased excise taxes on tobacco and comprehensive smoke-free air laws that ban smoking in the workplace, restaurants, and bars,” continued Ross. “However, many states in our identified hot spots either do not have these measures in place, or they are comparatively weak and could be strengthened.”
Limitations: In response to Ross, the primary limitation of the examine is that the researchers are usually not ready to attract any conclusions about whether or not or not variations in tobacco management are liable for the traits they noticed. “In addition, in some counties there was not enough information about rates available to draw conclusions about their trends in lung cancer mortality among women, which means that the results of the study might not apply to those counties,” Ross added.
Funding & Disclosures: Ross declares no conflicts of curiosity.
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