1.Carberry JC, Jordan AS, White DP, Wellman A, Eckert DJ. Higher airway collapsibility (Pcrit) and pharyngeal dilator muscle exercise are sleep stage dependent. Sleep. 2016;39:511–21.2.Berry RB, Budhiraja R, Gottlieb DJ, Gozal D, Iber C, Kapur VK, et al. Guidelines for scoring respiratory occasions in sleep: replace of the 2007 AASM Handbook for the Scoring of Sleep and Related Occasions. Deliberations of the Sleep Apnea Definitions Process Power of the American Academy of Sleep Medication. J Clin Sleep Med. 2012;eight:597–619.three.Younger T, Palta M, Dempsey J, Skatrud J, Weber S, Badr S. The prevalence of sleep-disordered respiratory amongst middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1230–5.four.Heinzer R, Vat S, Marques-Vidal P, Marti-Soler H, Andries D, Tobback N, et al. Prevalence of sleep-disordered respiratory within the basic inhabitants: the HypnoLaus research. Lancet Respir Med. 2015;three:310–eight.5.Sharples LD, Clutterbuck-James AL, Glover MJ, Bennett MS, Chadwick R, Pittman MA, et al. Meta-analysis of randomised managed trials of oral mandibular development gadgets and steady constructive airway stress for obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea. Sleep Med Rev. 2016;27:108–24.6.Jenkinson C, Davies RJ, Mullins R, Stradling JR. Comparability of therapeutic and subtherapeutic nasal steady constructive airway stress for obstructive sleep apnoea: a randomised potential parallel trial. Lancet. 1999;353:2100–5.7.Barbé F, Pericás J, Muñoz A, Findley L, Antó JM, Agustí AG. Car accidents in sufferers with sleep apnea syndrome. An epidemiological and mechanistic research. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158:18–22.eight.Tregear S, Reston J, Schoelles Ok, Phillips B, Obstructive sleep apnea and threat of motorcar crash: systematic overview and meta-analysis. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5:573–81.9.Sjösten N, Kivimäki M, Oksanen T, Salo P, Saaresranta T, Virtanen M, et al. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome as a predictor of labor incapacity. Respir Med. 2009;103:1047–55.10.Gupta MA, Simpson FC, Lyons DCA. The impact of treating obstructive sleep apnea with constructive airway stress on despair and different subjective signs: A scientific overview and meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2016;28:55–68.11.Craig SE, Kohler M, Nicoll D, Bratton DJ, Nunn A, Davies R, et al. Steady constructive airway stress improves sleepiness however not calculated vascular threat in sufferers with minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea: the MOSAIC randomised managed trial. Thorax. 2012;67:1090–6.12.Schwartz AR, Gold AR, Schubert N, Stryzak A, Sensible RA, Permutt S, et al. Impact of weight reduction on higher airway collapsibility in obstructive sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;144:494–eight.13.Iftikhar IH, Bittencourt L, Youngstedt SD, Ayas N, Cistulli P, Schwab R, et al. Comparative efficacy of CPAP, MADs, exercise-training, and dietary weight reduction for sleep apnea: a community meta-analysis. Sleep Med. 2017;30:7–14.14.Greenburg DL, Lettieri CJ, Eliasson AH. Results of surgical weight reduction on measures of obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2009;122:535–42.15.Marin JM, Carrizo SJ, Vicente E, Agusti AGN. Lengthy-term cardiovascular outcomes in males with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea with or with out therapy with steady constructive airway stress: an observational research. Lancet . 2005;365:1046–53.16.Younger T, Finn L, Peppard PE, Szklo-Coxe M, Austin D, Nieto FJ, et al. Sleep disordered respiratory and mortality: eighteen-year follow-up of the Wisconsin sleep cohort. Sleep. 2008;31:1071–eight.17.McEvoy RD, Antic NA, Heeley E, Luo Y, Ou Q, Zhang X, et al. CPAP for prevention of cardiovascular occasions in obstructive sleep apnea. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:919–31.18.Peker Y, Glantz H, Eulenburg C, Wegscheider Ok, Herlitz J, Thunström E. Impact of constructive airway stress on cardiovascular outcomes in coronary artery illness sufferers with nonsleepy obstructive sleep apnea. The RICCADSA Randomized Managed Trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016;194:613–20.19.Kohler M, Stradling JR. Mechanisms of vascular harm in obstructive sleep apnea. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2010;7:677–85.20.Davies CW, Crosby JH, Mullins RL, Barbour C, Davies RJ, Stradling JR. Case-control research of 24 h ambulatory blood stress in sufferers with obstructive sleep apnoea and regular matched management topics. Thorax. 2000;55:736–40.21.Peppard PE, Younger T, Palta M, Skatrud J. Potential research of the affiliation between sleep-disordered respiratory and hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1378–84.22.Nieto FJ, Younger TB, Lind BK, Shahar E, Samet JM, Redline S, et al. Affiliation of sleep-disordered respiratory, sleep apnea, and hypertension in a big community-based research. Sleep Coronary heart Well being Research. JAMA. 2000;283:1829–36.23.Pepperell JCT, Ramdassingh-Dow S, Crosthwaite N, Mullins R, Jenkinson C, Stradling JR, et al. Ambulatory blood stress after therapeutic and subtherapeutic nasal steady constructive airway stress for obstructive sleep apnoea: a randomised parallel trial. Lancet. 2002;359:204–10.24.Hu X, Fan J, Chen S, Yin Y, Zrenner B. The function of steady constructive airway stress in blood stress management for sufferers with obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension: a meta-analysis of randomized managed trials. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2015;17:215–22.25.Konstantinidis L, Guex-Crosier Y. Hypertension and the attention. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2016;27:514–21.26.Do DV, Wang X, Vedula SS, Marrone M, Sleilati G, Hawkins BS, et al. Blood stress management for diabetic retinopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;1:CD006127.27.Tight blood stress management and threat of macrovascular and microvascular problems in sort 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. UK Potential Diabetes Research Group. BMJ. 1998;317:703–13.28.Katsi VK, Marketou ME, Vrachatis DA, Manolis AJ, Nihoyannopoulos P, Tousoulis D, et al. Important hypertension within the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration: a overview of the present proof. J Hypertens. 2015;33:2382–eight.29.Choi J, Kook MS. Systemic and ocular hemodynamic threat components in glaucoma. BioMed Res Int. 2015;2015:141905.30.Tamisier R, Pépin JL, Rémy J, Baguet JP, Taylor JA, Weiss JW, et al. 14 nights of intermittent hypoxia elevate daytime blood stress and sympathetic exercise in wholesome people. Eur Respir J. 2011;37:119–28.31.Neri M, Riezzo I, Pascale N, Pomara C, Turillazzi E. Ischemia/reperfusion harm following acute myocardial infarction: a vital difficulty for clinicians and forensic pathologists. Mediat Inflamm. 2017;2017:7018393.32.Arden GB, Sivaprasad S. Hypoxia and oxidative stress within the causation of diabetic retinopathy. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2011;7:291–304.33.Blasiak J, Petrovski G, Veréb Z, Facskó A, Kaarniranta Ok. Oxidative stress, hypoxia, and autophagy within the neovascular processes of age-related macular degeneration. BioMed Res Int. 2014;2014:768026.34.Chrysostomou V, Rezania F, Trounce IA, Crowston JG. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in glaucoma. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2013;13:12–5.35.Chen L, Einbinder E, Zhang Q, Hasday J, Balke CW, Scharf SM. Oxidative stress and left ventricular operate with persistent intermittent hypoxia in rats. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172:915–20.36.Row BW, Liu R, Xu W, Kheirandish L, Gozal D. Intermittent hypoxia is related to oxidative stress and spatial studying deficits within the rat. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167:1548–53.37.Troncoso Brindeiro CM, da Silva AQ, Allahdadi KJ, Youngblood V, Kanagy NL. Reactive oxygen species contribute to sleep apnea-induced hypertension in rats. Am J Physiol Coronary heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H2971–2976.38.Paz Y, Mar HL, Hazen SL, Tracy RP, Strohl KP, Auckley D, Bena J, et al. Impact of steady constructive airway stress on cardiovascular biomarkers: the sleep apnea stress randomized managed trial. Chest. 2016;150:80–90.39.Stradling JR, Schwarz EI, Schlatzer C, Manuel AR, Lee R, Antoniades C, et al. Biomarkers of oxidative stress following steady constructive airway stress withdrawal: information from two randomised trials. Eur Respir J. 2015;46:1065–71.40.Turnbull CD, Akoumianakis I, Antoniades C, Stradling JR. In a single day urinary isoprostanes as a marker of oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J. 2017;49. 49(2) pii:160178741.Schwarz EI, Martinez-Lozano Sinues P, Bregy L, Gaisl T, Garcia Gomez D, Gaugg MT, et al. Results of CPAP remedy withdrawal on exhaled breath sample in obstructive sleep apnoea. Thorax. 2016;71:110–7.42.Margaritis M, Sanna F, Lazaros G, Akoumianakis I, Patel S, Antonopoulos AS et al. Predictive worth of telomere size on consequence following acute myocardial infarction: proof for contrasting results of vascular vs. blood oxidative stress. Eur Coronary heart J. 2017;38:3094–104.43.Celermajer DS, Sorensen KE, Gooch VM, Spiegelhalter DJ, Miller OI, Sullivan ID, et al. Non-invasive detection of endothelial dysfunction in youngsters and adults vulnerable to atherosclerosis. Lancet Lond Engl. 1992;340:1111–5.44.Antony I, Lerebours G, Nitenberg A. Lack of flow-dependent coronary artery dilatation in sufferers with hypertension. Circulation . 1995;91:1624–eight.45.Cox DA, Vita JA, Treasure CB, Fish RD, Alexander RW, Ganz P, et al. Atherosclerosis impairs flow-mediated dilation of coronary arteries in people. Circulation . 1989;80:458–65.46.Dorner GT, Garhöfer G, Huemer KH, Riva CE, Wolzt M, Schmetterer L. Hyperglycemia impacts flicker-induced vasodilation within the retina of wholesome topics. Imaginative and prescient Res. 2003;43:1495–500.47.Dorner GT, Garhofer G, Kiss B, Polska E, Polak Ok, Riva CE, et al. Nitric oxide regulates retinal vascular tone in people. Am J Physiol Coronary heart Circ Physiol. 2003;285:H631–6.48.Pemp B, Weigert G, Karl Ok, Petzl U, Wolzt M, Schmetterer L, et al. Correlation of flicker-induced and flow-mediated vasodilatation in sufferers with endothelial dysfunction and wholesome volunteers. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1536–41.49.Mandecka A, Dawczynski J, Blum M, Müller N, Kloos C, Wolf G, et al. Affect of flickering mild on the retinal vessels in diabetic sufferers. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:3048–52.50.Nguyen TT, Kawasaki R, Wang JJ, Kreis AJ, Shaw J, Vilser W, et al. Flicker light-induced retinal vasodilation in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:2075–80.51.Heitmar R, Cubbidge RP, Lip GYH, Gherghel D, Blann AD. Altered blood vessel responses within the eye and finger in coronary artery illness. Make investments Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:6199–205.52.Kohler M, Stoewhas A-C, Ayers L, Senn O, Bloch KE, Russi EW, et al. Results of steady constructive airway stress remedy withdrawal in sufferers with obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized managed trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184:1192–9.53.Schwarz EI, Puhan MA, Schlatzer C, Stradling JR, Kohler M. Impact of CPAP remedy on endothelial operate in obstructive sleep apnoea: A scientific overview and meta-analysis. Respirol Carlton Vic. 2015;20:889–95.54.Frederiksen CA, Jeppesen P, Knudsen ST, Poulsen PL, Mogensen CE, Bek T. The blood pressure-induced diameter response of retinal arterioles decreases with growing diabetic maculopathy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;244:1255–61.55.Ali NJ, Davies RJ, Fleetham JA, Stradling JR. The acute results of steady constructive airway stress and oxygen administration on blood stress throughout obstructive sleep apnea. Chest. 1992;101:1526–32.56.West SD, Nicoll DJ, Stradling JR. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in males with sort 2 diabetes. Thorax. 2006;61:945–50.57.Lam DC, Lui MM, Lam JC, Ong LH, Lam KS, Ip MS. Prevalence and recognition of obstructive sleep apnea in Chinese language sufferers with sort 2 diabetes mellitus. Chest. 2010;138:1101–7.58.Zhang R, Guo X, Guo L, Lu J, Zhou X, Ji L. Prevalence and related components of obstructive sleep apnea in hospitalized sufferers with sort 2 diabetes in Beijing, China 2. J Diabetes. 2015;7:16–23.59.Shaw JE, Punjabi NM, Wilding JP, Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Worldwide Diabetes Federation Taskforce on epidemiology and prevention. sleep-disordered respiratory and kind 2 diabetes: a report from the worldwide diabetes federation taskforce on epidemiology and prevention. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;81:2–12.60.Chung F, Yegneswaran B, Liao P, Chung SA, Vairavanathan S, Islam S, et al. STOP questionnaire: a instrument to display sufferers for obstructive sleep apnea. Anesthesiology. 2008;108:812–21.61.Ruta LM, Magliano DJ, Lemesurier R, Taylor HR, Zimmet PZ, Shaw JE. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Sort 2 diabetes in creating and developed international locations. DiabetMed. 2013;30:387–98.62.Inner Medical Tips Group. Sort 2 diabetes in adults: administration. NICE Guideline [NG28]. London: Nationwide Institute for Well being and Care Excellence (UK); 2017..63.Mason RH, West SD, Kiire CA, Groves DC, Lipinski HJ, Jaycock A, et al. Excessive prevalence of sleep disordered inhaling sufferers with diabetic macular edema. Retina. 2012;32:1791–eight.64.Prudon B, Hughes J, West S. A novel postal-based strategy to diagnosing obstructive sleep apnoea in a high-risk inhabitants. Sleep Med. 2017;33:1–5.65.West SD, Groves DC, Lipinski HJ, Nicoll DJ, Mason RH, Scanlon PH, et al. The prevalence of retinopathy in males with Sort 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnoea. Diabet Med. 2010;27:423–30.66.Rudrappa S, Warren G, Idris I. Obstructive sleep apnoea is related to the event and development of diabetic retinopathy, impartial of standard threat components and novel biomarkers for diabetic retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:1535.67.Kosseifi S, Bailey B, Value R, Roy TM, Byrd RP Jr, Peiris AN. The affiliation between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and microvascular problems in well-controlled diabetic sufferers. Mil Med. 2010;175:913–6.68.Chang AC, Fox TP, Wang S, Wu AY. Relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy. Retina. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000001848.69.Altaf QA, Dodson P, Ali A, Raymond NT, Wharton H, Fellows H et al. Obstructive sleep apnoea and retinopathy in sufferers with sort 2 diabetes: a longitudinal research. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201701-Zero175OC..70.Zhang R, Zhang P, Zhao F, Han X, Ji L. Affiliation of diabetic microvascular problems and parameters of obstructive sleep apnea in sufferers with sort 2 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2016;18:415–20.71.Banerjee D, Leong WB, Arora T, Nolen M, Punamiya V, Grunstein R, et al. The potential affiliation between obstructive sleep apnea and diabetic retinopathy in extreme obesity-the function of hypoxemia. PLoS ONE. 2013;eight:e79521.72.Leong WB, Jadhakhan F, Tahei S, Chen YF, Adab P, Thomas GN. Impact of obstructive sleep apnoea on diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy: a scientific overview and meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2016;33:158–68.73.Sinclair SH, Malamut R, Delvecchio C, Li W. Diabetic retinopathy: treating systemic situations aggressively can save sight. Cleve Clin J Med. 2005;72:447–54.74.Mason RH, Kiire CA, Groves DC, Lipinski HJ, Jaycock A, Winter BC, et al. Visible enchancment following steady constructive airway stress remedy in diabetic topics with clinically important macular oedema and obstructive sleep apnoea: proof of precept research. Respiration. 2012;84:275–82.75.West SD, Hughes J, Prudon B. Baseline information from the ROSA trial: a randomised managed trial of the impact of CPAP on diabetic macular oedema in folks with concurrent Obstructive Sleep Apnoea. ATS. 2016:P1071.76.Amin AM, Wharton H, Clarke M, Syed A, Dodson P, Tahrani AA. The impression of bariatric surgical procedure on retinopathy in sufferers with sort 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort research. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2016;12:606–12.77.Manin G, Pons A, Baltzinger P, Moreau F, Iamandi C, Wilhelm JM, et al. Obstructive sleep apnoea in folks with Sort 1 diabetes: prevalence and affiliation with micro- and macrovascular problems. Diabet Med. 2015;32:90–6.78.Liu S, Lin Y, Liu X. Meta-analysis of affiliation of obstructive sleep apnea with glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2016;25:1–7.79.Shi Y, Liu P, Guan J, Lu Y, Su Ok. Affiliation between glaucoma and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a meta-analysis and systematic overview. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0115625.80.Wu X, Liu H. Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome will increase glaucoma threat: proof from a meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015;eight:297–303.81.Huon LK, Liu SY, Camacho M, Guilleminault C. The affiliation between ophthalmologic ailments and obstructive sleep apnea: a scientific overview and meta-analysis. Sleep Breath. 2016;20:1145–54.82.Keenan TD, Goldacre R, Goldacre MJ, Associations between obstructive sleep apnoea, main open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration: report linkage research. Br J Ophthalmol. 2017;101:155–9.83.Aptel F, Chiquet C, Tamisier R, Sapene M, Martin F, Stach B, et al. Affiliation between glaucoma and sleep apnea in a big French multicenter potential cohort. Sleep Med. 2014;15:576–81.84.Lin CC, Hu CC, Ho JD, Chiu HW, Lin HC. Obstructive sleep apnea and elevated threat of glaucoma: a population-based matched-cohort research. Ophthalmology . 2013;120:1559–64.85.Alvarez-Sala R, García IT, García F, Moriche J, Prados C, Díaz S, et al. Nasal CPAP throughout wakefulness will increase intraocular stress in glaucoma. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 1994;49:394–5.86.Kiekens S, Veva De G, Coeckelbergh T, Tassignon MJ, van de Heyning P, Wilfried De B, et al. Steady constructive airway stress remedy is related to a rise in intraocular stress in obstructive sleep apnea. Make investments Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:934–40.87.Cohen Y, Ben-Mair E, Rosenzweig E, Shechter-Amir D, Solomon AS. The impact of nocturnal CPAP remedy on the intraocular stress of sufferers with sleep apnea syndrome. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015;253:2263–71.88.Ulusoy S, Erden M, Dinc ME, Yavuz N, Caglar E, Dalgic A, Erdogan C. Results of use of a steady constructive airway stress machine on glaucoma. Med Sci Monit. 2015;21:3415–9.89.McNab AA. Floppy eyelid syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;13:98–114.90.McNab AA. The attention and sleep apnea. Sleep Med Rev. 2007;11:269–76.91.Ezra DG, Beaconsfield M, Sira M, Bunce C, Wormald R, Collin R. The associations of floppy eyelid syndrome: a case management research. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:831–eight.92.Fowler AM, Dutton JJ. Floppy eyelid syndrome as a subset of lax eyelid situations: relationships and scientific relevance (an ASOPRS thesis). Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;26:195–204.93.Muniesa MJ, Huerva V, Sánchez-de-la-Torre M, Martínez M, Jurjo C, Barbé F. The connection between floppy eyelid syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013;97:1387–90.94.Muniesa M, Sánchez-de-la-Torre M, Huerva V, Lumbierres M, Barbé F. Floppy eyelid syndrome as an indicator of the presence of glaucoma in sufferers with obstructive sleep apnea. J Glaucoma. 2014;23:e81–5.95.Fox TP, Schwartz JA, Chang AC, Parvin-Nejad FP, Yim CK, Feinsilver SH, et al. Affiliation Between Eyelid Laxity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:1055–1061.96.Bayır Ö, Acar M, Yüksel E, Yüceege M, Saylam G, Tatar EÇ et al. The consequences of anterior palatoplasty on floppy eyelid syndrome sufferers with obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1002/lary.25905.97.Randerath WJ, Verbraecken J, Andreas S, Bettega G, Boudewyns A, Hamans E, et al. European Respiratory Society activity drive on non-CPAP therapies in sleep apnoea. Non-CPAP therapies in obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J. 2011;37:1000–28.98.Aptel F, Khayi H, Pépin JL, Tamisier R, Levy P, Romanet JP, et al. Affiliation of nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. JAMA Opthalmol. 2015;133:797–804.99.Wu Y, Zhou LM, Lou H, Cheng JW, Wei RL. The affiliation between obstructive sleep apnea and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: a scientific overview and meta-analysis. Curr Eye Res. 2015;four:1–6.100.Gencer B, Ozgurhan EB, Kara S, Tufan HA, Arikan S, Bozkurt E, et al. Weight problems and obstructive sleep apnea in sufferers with keratoconus in a Turkish inhabitants. Cornea . 2014;33:137–40.101.Gupta PK, Stinnett SS, Carlson AN. Prevalence of sleep apnea in sufferers with keratoconus. Cornea . 2012;31:595–9.102.Netzer NC, Stoohs RA, Netzer CM, Clark Ok, Strohl KP. Utilizing the Berlin Questionnaire to establish sufferers in danger for the sleep apnea syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131:485–91.103.Naderan M, Rezagholizadeh F, Zolfaghari M, Rajabi MT, Kamaleddin MA. Affiliation between the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea and the severity of keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol. 2015;99:1675–9.104.Nesmith BL, Ihnen M, Schaal S. Poor responders to bevacizumab pharmacotherapy in age-related macular degeneration and in diabetic macular edema exhibit elevated threat for obstructive sleep apnea. Retina . 2014;34:2423–30.105.Schaal S, Sherman MP, Nesmith B, Barak Y. Untreated obstructive sleep apnea hinders response to bevacizumab in age-related macular degeneration. Retina. 2016;36:791–7.